Causality relations

Causality occurs when one variable causes the other. Watch this video and try to identify the different types of variables.

In a causal relationship, we identify two or more variables:

  • Independent variable: Also called explanatory variable, is the variable that causes the effect. It is illustrated with the symbol x.
  • Dependent variable: Also called explained or response variable, is the variable that is affected by the independent variable. It is illustrated with the symbol y.
  • There may also be other variables in this relationship, like the control variable, which is the variable that we believe may condition the effects of the independent variable on the dependent one. In the following video we find this logic explained.

Exercise: Examine the following tweets and answer the following questions:

  • What is a variable? What is NOT a variable? Put an example of each.
  • Which is the independent variable and the dependent variable in each case? Provide a reasoned answer.
  • Are you sure about what is the independent and what is the dependent variable? We call it to inverse causality when they are flipped. Discuss the possibility of inversing the causality in each case.
  • Suggest, for every case, a control variable that may influence the relationship between x and y.

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