Causality occurs when one variable causes the other. Watch this video and try to identify the different types of variables.
In a causal relationship, we identify two or more variables:
- Independent variable: Also called explanatory variable, is the variable that causes the effect. It is illustrated with the symbol
- Dependent variable: Also called explained or response variable, is the variable that is affected by the independent variable. It is illustrated with the symbol
- There may also be other variables in this relationship, like the control variable, which is the variable that we believe may condition the effects of the independent variable on the dependent one. In the following video we find this logic explained.
Exercise: Examine the following tweets and answer the following questions:
- What is a variable? What is NOT a variable? Put an example of each.
- Which is the independent variable and the dependent variable in each case? Provide a reasoned answer.
- Are you sure about what is the independent and what is the dependent variable? We call it to inverse causality when they are flipped. Discuss the possibility of inversing the causality in each case.
- Suggest, for every case, a control variable that may influence the relationship between
U.S. Educational Attainment and Presidential Voting Patterns https://t.co/TvpfUbGV78 pic.twitter.com/BT4Pirpdsq— Visual Data (@data_rep) July 18, 2020
Latitude and human development, or why the Global South is a... https://t.co/9yYXk0fw1Q pic.twitter.com/tnM5HlgxYZ— Visual Data (@data_rep) November 6, 2018
Not surprising, but v consistent. Richer countries have a much smaller average HH size.— Branko Milanovic (@BrankoMilan) July 12, 2020
Preferences as ppl get rich: fewer children, less cohabitation, ability to buy typically HH-produced goods/services at market (food delivery, cleaning etc)
Declining usefulness of family. pic.twitter.com/X1OMVKlggb
🏠¿Cómo influye la renta de los padres en sus hijos? Un mapa inédito con la renta hoy de los jóvenes que se criaron en hogares pobres y ricos de los noventa. En cada ciudad y código postal: https://t.co/cX7Gi9Wsqq pic.twitter.com/jcZcmzJgt4— Kiko Llaneras (@kikollan) July 15, 2020
U.S. women are slightly more likely than men (29% vs. 21%) to see at least some truth in the conspiracy theory alleging that powerful people planned the coronavirus outbreak. https://t.co/EU2mdnZ5pj pic.twitter.com/B0o75636LS— Pew Research Fact Tank (@FactTank) July 25, 2020
From the global inequality files.— Branko Milanovic (@BrankoMilan) July 23, 2020
Post-communist countries still tend to have lower inequality than expected based on their income (post-Comm=red; LatAm=green; West=blue). pic.twitter.com/bwGWfT7veI
New on https://t.co/sInc4TxNw1: Extreme Inequality and the Structure of Political Clevages in South Africa 1994-2019, by A. Gethin. SA party system is slowly moving from race-based to class-based, but not enough to deliver real redistributionhttps://t.co/gTbteqgQAF pic.twitter.com/kslemG3gp5— Thomas Piketty (@PikettyLeMonde) July 10, 2020
The politics of reopening schools.https://t.co/u7gUvCWpvV pic.twitter.com/500fh6So9N— Philip Bump (@pbump) July 16, 2020
51% of Americans say they strongly or somewhat approve of social media companies labeling posts from elected officials on their platforms as inaccurate or misleading. 46% say they at least somewhat disapprove of this.https://t.co/j8qQX5QJ7s pic.twitter.com/CZIxRDuD3D— Pew Research Internet (@pewinternet) August 21, 2020
74% of Christians in the U.S. say houses of worship should be required to follow the same rules about social distancing and large gatherings as other organizations or businesses in their area. https://t.co/aCpRMgirVq pic.twitter.com/02r2jSfGtK— Pew Research Center (@pewresearch) August 12, 2020
Most regular attenders say they’re either very (34%) or somewhat (29%) confident they could safely attend religious services in person right now, without spreading or catching the coronavirus https://t.co/MlERdZcC8I pic.twitter.com/kuuOizzxMy— Pew Research Center (@pewresearch) August 8, 2020
Activism on social media varies by race and ethnicity, age, political party https://t.co/UOZd28GdyK pic.twitter.com/IQyQWeyAO5— Pew Research Fact Tank (@FactTank) July 20, 2020
Brutal el gradiente social del #teletrabajo en Madrid. "Mientras q en los niveles más altos de renta hay en torno a un 70% teletrabajando, por debajo de los 1.500€ hay menos de la mitad, y entre los de menos de 1.000€ la cifra es del 13%".— Javier Segura (@jseguradelpozo) August 24, 2020
Fuente: https://t.co/eoLto7YKwh pic.twitter.com/grej88HVws
The political and racial/ethnic makeup for each NHL club's fan base, per polling from @MorningConsult https://t.co/o2Pbj6fY53 pic.twitter.com/UqbA4RJUvi— Mark J. Burns (@markjburns88) September 10, 2020
62% of U.S. Catholics say casual sex between consenting adults is sometimes or always acceptable, as do 45% of Protestants. 84% of those who are religiously unaffiliated say this. https://t.co/w7HtyJ9zip pic.twitter.com/5bKAA4VIdA— Pew Research Fact Tank (@FactTank) August 31, 2020
This graph... via @business on telecommuting, aka working from home & much more in these strange times...https://t.co/HNERzNREtN pic.twitter.com/mLHcmz4sqp— Aleksandr V. Gevorkyan (@avgevorkyan) September 14, 2020